13/08/2013 @ 7:03 pm – 7:13 pm
Acharya Hall
Amrita University
Amritapuri, Vallikavu, Kerala 690525

Jaipal Panga Reddy, Dulal Panda and Sanjeeva Srivastava

The rapid emergence of microbial resistance against the ever increasing number of infectious diseases has been a major hurdle in hunt for novel antibiotics and inventive targets required to combat these dreaded pathogens. Despite the discovery of synthetic and semi-synthetic drugs, infectious diseases remain a major cause of concern. The process of drug discovery started from natural products as an antibacterial drug, an old art which was widely adopted in ancient civilizations in India and China. Most of the existing antibiotics are derived from the backbone of natural compounds (Butler M S 2005). Drug discovery process from natural products to synthetic medicine has continued for thousands of years to battle with pathogenic organisms. Although synthetic drugs played a vital role as antimicrobial drugs during the last decade, the over-use of antibiotics has led to the unanticipated changes at the genomic level, resulting into emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains (Singh P et al. 2010). To combat drug-resistant strains there is a need to develop and characterize new drugs by screening natural and synthetic compounds. Curcumin is a well known natural product, with a potential to cure wide range of cancers. Apart from antitumor activity, it also has anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-genotoxic, phototoxic and antimicrobial activities. The exact mechanism of action of curcumin is still obscure and further investigations are required to identify its molecular/cellular targets. Recently, it was observed that curcumin is able to perturb the FtsZ assembly dynamics and elongate the bacterial cell length by inhibiting bacterial cell division (Rai D et al. 2008).

In the present study, we aimed at deciphering the mechanism of action and molecular targets of curcumin in B. subtilis AH75 using classical two dimensional electrophoresis, 2D-difference gel electrophoresis (2DDIGE) in combination with MALDI-TOF/TOFMS. Comparative proteome analysis of control and IC50 curcumin treated B. subtilis has revealed differential expression of 48 proteins (p ≤ 0.05) in response to curcumin treatment. Further, in silico analysis has revealed the involvement of the differential expressed proteins in protein synthesis, transcription/nucleotide synthesis, stress regulation, central metabolism and amino acid metabolic process. Additionally, suppression in major central metabolic dehydrogenase such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 2, dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit beta, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase E1 component, ATP synthase epsilon chain, ATP synthase subunit beta and probable NADdependent malic enzyme 1 has been identified (Figure 1). Reduction in expression levels of major dehydrogenases indicates the disturbance in cell membrane integrity to transfer the electrons from NADH to molecular oxygen or maintain the PMF or maintain the membrane potential. Selected potential proteins obtained from proteomic analysis were validated with real-time expression analysis and metabolic assays such as resazurin assay for metabolic activity, CTC assay for respiratory activity and propidium iodide staining for membrane integrity. Findings from this study have revealed that curcumin has potential effects on multiple physiological pathways in bacteria and inhibition of the cell division machinery is one of the prime targets of this drug. Multiple proteins involved in cell division process such as GroEL, ClpC, MetK, Tuf and major dehydrogenases are significantly modulated as a consequence of the drug treatment.

Delegate Talk: A proteomic approach to decipher the mechanism of action and molecular targets of curcumin in Bacillus subtilis