Sanjeeva Srivastava, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor, Proteomics Lab, IIT-Bombay, India
Identification of Potential Early Diagnostic Biomarkers for Gliomas and Various Infectious Diseases using Proteomic Technologies
The spectacular advancements achieved in the field of proteomics research during the last decade have propelled the growth of proteomics for clinical research. Recently, comprehensive proteomic analyses of different biological samples such as serum or plasma, tissue, CSF, urine, saliva etc. have attracted considerable attention for the identification of protein biomarkers as early detection surrogates for diseases (Ray et al., 2011). Biomarkers are biomolecules that can be used for early disease detection, differentiation between closely related diseases with similar clinical manifestations as well as aid in scrutinizing disease progression. Our research group is performing in-depth analysis of alteration in human proteome in different types of brain tumors and various pathogenic infections to obtain mechanistic insight about the disease pathogenesis and host immune responses, and identification of surrogate protein markers for these fatal human diseases.
Applying 2D-DIGE in combination with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS we have analyzed the serum and tissue proteome profiles of glioblastoma multiforme; the most common and lethal adult malignant brain tumor (Gollapalli et al., 2012) (Figure 1). Results obtained were validated by employing different immunoassay-based approaches. In serum proteomic analysis we have identified some interesting proteins like haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, vitamin-D binding protein etc. Moreover, proteomic analysis of different grades (grade-I to IV) of gliomas and normal brain tissue was performed and differential expressions of quite a few proteins such as SIRT2, GFAP, SOD, CDC42 have been identified, which have significant correlation with the tumor growth. While proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid from low grade (grade I & II) vs. high grade (grade III & IV) gliomas revealed modulation of CSF levels of apolipoprotein E, dickkopf related protein 3, vitamin D binding protein and albumin in high grade gliomas. The prospective candidates identified in our studies provide a mechanistic insight of glioma pathogenesis and identification of potential biomarkers. We are also studying the role of JAK/STAT interactome and therapeutic potential of STAT3 inhibitors in gliomas using proteomics approach. Several candidates of the JAK/STAT interactome were identified with altered expression and a significant correlation was observed between STAT3 and PDK1 transcript expression level.
We have also investigated the changes in human serum proteome in different infectious diseases including falciparum and vivax malaria (Ray et al., 2012a; Ray et al., 2012b), dengue (Ray et al., 2012c) and leptospirosis (Srivastava et al., 2012). Although, quite a few serum proteins were found to be commonly altered in different infectious diseases and might be a consequence of inflammation mediated acute phase response signaling, uniquely modulated candidates were identified in each pathogenic infection indicating the some inimitable responses. Further, a panel of identified proteins consists of six candidates; serum amyloid A, hemopexin, apolipoprotein E, haptoglobin, retinol-binding protein and apolipoprotein A-I was used to build statistical sample class prediction models employing PLSDA and other classification methods to predict the clinical phenotypic classes and 91.37% overall prediction accuracy was achieved (Figure 2). ROC curve analysis was carried out to evaluate the individual performance of classifier proteins. The excellent discrimination among the different disease groups on the basis of differentially expressed proteins demonstrates the potential diagnostic implications of this analytical approach.
Keywords: Diagnostic biomarkers, Gliomas, Infectious Diseases, Proteomics, Serum proteome
Acknowledgments: This disease biomarker discovery research was supported by Department of Biotechnology, India grant (No. BT/PR14359/MED/30/916/2010), Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences (BRNS) DAE young scientist award (2009/20/37/4/BRNS) and a startup grant 09IRCC007 from the IIT Bombay. The active support from Advanced Center for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH), and Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital Mumbai, India in clinical sample collection process is gratefully acknowledged.
- Ray S, Reddy PJ, Jain R, Gollapalli K. Moiyadi A, Srivastava S. Proteomic technologies for the identification of disease biomarkers in serum: advances and challenges ahead. Proteomics 11: 2139-61, 2011.
- Gollapalli K, Ray S, Srivastava R, Renu D, Singh P, Dhali S, Dikshit JB, Srikanth R, Moiyadi A, Srivastava S. Investigation of serum proteome alterations in human glioblastoma multiforme. Proteomics 12(14): 2378-90, 2012.
- Ray S, Renu D, Srivastava R, Gollapalli K, Taur S, Jhaveri T, Dhali S, Chennareddy S, Potla A, Dikshit JB, Srikanth R, Gogtay N, Thatte U, Patankar S, Srivastava S. Proteomic investigation of falciparum and vivax malaria for identification of surrogate protein markers. PLoS One 7(8): e41751, 2012a.
- Ray S, Kamath KS, Srivastava R, Raghu D, Gollapalli K, Jain R, Gupta SV, Ray S, Taur S, Dhali S, Gogtay N, Thatte U, Srikanth R, Patankar S, Srivastava S. Serum proteome analysis of vivax malaria: An insight into the disease pathogenesis and host immune response. J Proteomics 75(10): 3063-80, 2012b.
- Srivastava R, Ray S, Vaibhav V, Gollapalli K, Jhaveri T, Taur S, Dhali S, Gogtay N, Thatte U, Srikanth R, Srivastava S. Serum profiling of leptospirosis patients to investigate proteomic alterations. J Proteomics 76: 56-68, 2012.
- Ray S, Srivastava R, Tripathi K, Vaibhav V, Srivastava S. Serum proteome changes in dengue virus-infected patients from a dengue-endemic area of India: towards new molecular targets? OMICS 16(10): 527-36, 2012c.
* Correspondence: Dr. Sanjeeva Srivastava, Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai 400 076, India: E-mail: email@example.com; Phone: +91-22-2576-7779, Fax: +91-22-2572-3480
Kal Ramnarayan, Ph.D.
Co-founder President & Chief Scientific Officer, Sapient Discovery, San Diego, CA, USA
A cost-effective approach to Protein Structure-guided Drug Discovery: Aided by Bioinformatics, Chemoinformatics and computational chemistry
With the mapping of the human genome completed almost a decade ago, efforts are still underway to understand the gene products (i.e., proteins) in the human biological and disease pathways. Deciphering such information is very important for the discovery and development of small molecule drugs as well as protein therapeutics for various human diseases for which no cure exists. As an example, with more than 500 members, the kinase family of protein targets continues to be an important and attractive class for drug discovery. While how many of the members in this family are actually druggable is still to be established, there are several ongoing efforts on this class of proteins across a broad spectrum of disease categories. Even though in general the protein structural topology might looks similar, there are issues with respect selectivity of identified small molecule inhibitors when, the lead molecule discovery is carried out at the ATP binding site. As an added complexity, allosteric modulators are needed for some of the members, but the actual site for such modulation on the protein target can not resolved with uncertainty. In this presentation we will describe a bioinformatics and computational based platform for small molecule discovery for protein targets that are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as targets like kinases and phosphatases. We will describe a computational approach in which we have used an informatics based platform with several hundred kinases to sort through in silico and identify inhibitors that are likely to be highly selective in the lead generation phase. We will discuss the implication of this approach on the drug discovery of the kinase and phosphatase classes in general and independent of the disease category.
V. Nagaraja Ph.D.
Professor, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, India
Perturbation of DNA topology in mycobacteria
To maintain the topological homeostasis of the genome in the cell, DNA topoisomerases catalyse DNA cleavage, strand passage and rejoining of the ends. Thus, although they are essential house- keeping enzymes, they are the most vulnerable targets; arrest of the reaction after the first trans-esterification step leads to breaks in DNA and cell death. Some of the successful antibacterial or anticancer drugs target the step ie arrest the reaction or stabilize the topo -DNA covalent complex. I will describe our efforts in this direction – to target DNA gyrase and also topoisomerase1 from mycobacteria. The latter, although essential, has no inhibitors described so far. The new inhibitors being characterized are also used to probe topoisomerase control of gene expression.
In the biological warfare between the organisms, a diverse set of molecules encoded by invading genomes target the above mentioned most vulnerable step of topoisomerase reaction, leading to the accumulation of double strand breaks. Bacteria, on their part appear to have developed defense strategies to protect the cells from genomic double strand breaks. I will describe a mechanism involving three distinct gyrase interacting proteins which inhibit the enzyme in vitro. However, in vivo all these topology modulators protect DNA gyrase from poisoning effect by sequestering the enzyme away from DNA.
Next, we have targeted a topology modulator protein, a nucleoid associated protein(NAP) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis to develop small molecule inhibitors by structure based design. Over expression of HU leads to alteration in the nucleoid architecture. The crystal structure of the N-terminal half of HU reveals a cleft that accommodates duplex DNA. Based on the structural feature, we have designed inhibitors which bind to the protein and affect its interaction with DNA, de-compact the nucleoid and inhibit cell growth. Chemical probing with the inhibitors reveal the importance of HU regulon in M.tuberculosis.
Sukhithasri V, Nisha N, Vivek V and Raja Biswas
The host innate immune system acts as the first line of defense against invading pathogens. During an infection, the host innate immune cells recognize unique conserved molecules on the pathogen known as Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs). This recognition of PAMPs helps the host mount an innate immune response leading to the production of cytokines (Akira et al. 2006). Peptidoglycan, one of the most conserved and essential component of the bacterial cell wall is one such PAMP. Peptidoglycan is known to have potent proinflammatory properties (Gust et al. 2007). Host recognize peptidoglycan using Nucleotide oligomerization domain proteins (NODs). This recognition of peptidoglycan activates the NODs and triggers downstream signaling leading to the nuclear translocation of NF-ÎºB and production of cytokines (McDonald et al. 2005). Pathogenic bacteria modify their peptidoglycan as a strategy to evade innate immune recognition, which helps it to establish infection in the host. These peptidoglycan modifications include O-acetylation and N-glycolylation of muramic acid and N-deacetylation of N-acetylglucosamine (Davis et al. 2011). Modification of mycobacterial peptidoglycan by N-glycolylation prevents the catalytic activity of lysozyme (Raymond et al. 2005). Additionally, mycobacterial peptidoglycan is modified by amidation for unknown reasons.
Here, we have investigated the role of amidated peptidoglycan in Mycobacterium sp in modulating the innate immune response. We isolated amidated peptidoglycan from Mycobacterium sp and non-amidated peptidoglycan from Escherichia coli. We made a comparative analysis of the cytokine response produced on stimulation of innate immune cells by peptidoglycan from E. Coli and Mycobacterium sp. Macrophages and whole blood were treated with peptidoglycan and the cytokines secreted into spent medium and plasma respectively were analyzed using ELISA. Our results show that peptidoglycan from Mycobacterium sp is less effective in stimulating innate immune cells to produce cytokines. This intrinsic modulation of the cytokine response suggests that mycobacteria modify their peptidoglycan by amidation to evade innate immune response.