Nader Pourmand, Ph.D.
Director, UCSC Genome Technology Center,University of California, Santa Cruz
Biosensor and Single Cell Manipulation using Nanopipettes
Approaching sub-cellular biological problems from an engineering perspective begs for the incorporation of electronic readouts. With their high sensitivity and low invasiveness, nanotechnology-based tools hold great promise for biochemical sensing and single-cell manipulation. During my talk I will discuss the incorporation of electrical measurements into nanopipette technology and present results showing the rapid and reversible response of these subcellular sensors to different analytes such as antigens, ions and carbohydrates. In addition, I will present the development of a single-cell manipulation platform that uses a nanopipette in a scanning ion-conductive microscopy technique. We use this newly developed technology to position the nanopipette with nanoscale precision, and to inject and/or aspirate a minute amount of material to and from individual cells or organelle without comprising cell viability. Furthermore, if time permits, I will show our strategy for a new, single-cell DNA/ RNA sequencing technology that will potentially use nanopipette technology to analyze the minute amount of aspirated cellular material.
John Stanley, Satheesh Babu, Ramacahandran T and Bipin Nair
Pt-Pd decorated TiO2 nanotube array for the non-enzymatic determination of glucose in neutral medium
Rapidly expanding diabetic population and the complications associated with elevated glycemic levels necessitates the need for a highly sensitive, selective and stable blood glucose measurement strategy. The high sensitivity and selectivity of enzymatic sensors together with viable manufacturing technologies such as screen-printing have made a great social and economic impact. However, the intrinsic nature of the enzymes leads to lack of stability and consequently reduces shelf life and imposes the need for stringent storage conditions. As a result much effort has been directed towards the development of â€˜enzyme-freeâ€™ glucose sensors (Park et al. 2006). In this paper, a non-enzymatic amperometric sensor for selective and sensitive direct electrooxidation of glucose in neutral medium was fabricated based on Platinum-Palladium (Ptâ€“Pd) nanoparticle decorated titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube arrays. Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays were obtained using a single step anodization process (Grimes C A and Mor G K 2009) over which Ptâ€“Pd nanoparticles where electrochemically deposited. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed the diameter of the TiO2 nanotubes to be approximately 40 nm. Elemental analysis after electrochemical deposition confirms the presence of Ptâ€“Pd. Electrochemical characterization of the sensor was carried out using cyclic voltammetry technique (âˆ’1.0 to +1.0V) in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) pH 7.4. All further glucose oxidation studies were performed in PBS (pH 7.4). The sensor exhibited good linear response towards glucose for a concentration range of 1 Î¼M to 20mM with a linear regression coefficient of R = 0.998. The electrodes are found to be selective in the presence of other commonly interfering molecules such as ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine and acetamidophenol. Thus a nonenzymatic sensor with good selectivity and sensitivity towards glucose in neutral medium has been developed.
Akhilesh Pandey, Ph.D.
Professor, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA
A draft map of the human proteome
We have generated a draft map of the human proteome through a systematic and comprehensive analysis of normal human adult tissues, fetal tissues and hematopoietic cells as an India-US initiative. This unique dataset was generated from 30 histologically normal adult tissues, fetal tissues and purified primary hematopoietic cells that were analyzed at high resolution in the MS mode and by HCD fragmentation in the MS/MS mode on LTQ-Orbitrap Velos/Elite mass spectrometers. This dataset was searched against a 6-frame translation of the human genome and RNA-Seq transcripts in addition to standard protein databases. In addition to confirming a large majority (>16,000) of the annotated protein-coding genes in humans, we obtained novel information at multiple levels: novel protein-coding genes, unannotated exons, novel splice sites, proof of translation of pseudogenes (i.e. genes incorrectly annotated as pseudogenes), fused genes, SNPs encoded in proteins and novel N-termini to name a few. Many proteins identified in this study were identified by proteomic methods for the first time (e.g. hypothetical proteins or proteins annotated based solely on their chromosomal location). We have generated a catalog of proteins that show a more tissue-restricted pattern of expression, which should serve as the basis for pursuing biomarkers for diseases pertaining to specific organs. This study also provides one of the largest sets of proteotypic peptides for use in developing MRM assays for human proteins. Identification of several novel protein-coding regions in the human genome underscores the importance of systematic characterization of the human proteome and accurate annotation of protein-coding genes. This comprehensive dataset will complement other global HUPO initiatives using antibody-based as well as MRM mass spectrometry-based strategies. Finally, we believe that this dataset will become a reference set for use as a spectral library as well as for interesting interrogations pertaining to biomedical as well as bioinformatics questions.