Sanjeeva Srivastava, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor, Proteomics Lab, IIT-Bombay, India
Identification of Potential Early Diagnostic Biomarkers for Gliomas and Various Infectious Diseases using Proteomic Technologies
The spectacular advancements achieved in the field of proteomics research during the last decade have propelled the growth of proteomics for clinical research. Recently, comprehensive proteomic analyses of different biological samples such as serum or plasma, tissue, CSF, urine, saliva etc. have attracted considerable attention for the identification of protein biomarkers as early detection surrogates for diseases (Ray et al., 2011). Biomarkers are biomolecules that can be used for early disease detection, differentiation between closely related diseases with similar clinical manifestations as well as aid in scrutinizing disease progression. Our research group is performing in-depth analysis of alteration in human proteome in different types of brain tumors and various pathogenic infections to obtain mechanistic insight about the disease pathogenesis and host immune responses, and identification of surrogate protein markers for these fatal human diseases.
Applying 2D-DIGE in combination with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS we have analyzed the serum and tissue proteome profiles of glioblastoma multiforme; the most common and lethal adult malignant brain tumor (Gollapalli et al., 2012) (Figure 1). Results obtained were validated by employing different immunoassay-based approaches. In serum proteomic analysis we have identified some interesting proteins like haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, vitamin-D binding protein etc. Moreover, proteomic analysis of different grades (grade-I to IV) of gliomas and normal brain tissue was performed and differential expressions of quite a few proteins such as SIRT2, GFAP, SOD, CDC42 have been identified, which have significant correlation with the tumor growth. While proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid from low grade (grade I & II) vs. high grade (grade III & IV) gliomas revealed modulation of CSF levels of apolipoprotein E, dickkopf related protein 3, vitamin D binding protein and albumin in high grade gliomas. The prospective candidates identified in our studies provide a mechanistic insight of glioma pathogenesis and identification of potential biomarkers. We are also studying the role of JAK/STAT interactome and therapeutic potential of STAT3 inhibitors in gliomas using proteomics approach. Several candidates of the JAK/STAT interactome were identified with altered expression and a significant correlation was observed between STAT3 and PDK1 transcript expression level.
We have also investigated the changes in human serum proteome in different infectious diseases including falciparum and vivax malaria (Ray et al., 2012a; Ray et al., 2012b), dengue (Ray et al., 2012c) and leptospirosis (Srivastava et al., 2012). Although, quite a few serum proteins were found to be commonly altered in different infectious diseases and might be a consequence of inflammation mediated acute phase response signaling, uniquely modulated candidates were identified in each pathogenic infection indicating the some inimitable responses. Further, a panel of identified proteins consists of six candidates; serum amyloid A, hemopexin, apolipoprotein E, haptoglobin, retinol-binding protein and apolipoprotein A-I was used to build statistical sample class prediction models employing PLSDA and other classification methods to predict the clinical phenotypic classes and 91.37% overall prediction accuracy was achieved (Figure 2). ROC curve analysis was carried out to evaluate the individual performance of classifier proteins. The excellent discrimination among the different disease groups on the basis of differentially expressed proteins demonstrates the potential diagnostic implications of this analytical approach.
Keywords: Diagnostic biomarkers, Gliomas, Infectious Diseases, Proteomics, Serum proteome
Acknowledgments: This disease biomarker discovery research was supported by Department of Biotechnology, India grant (No. BT/PR14359/MED/30/916/2010), Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences (BRNS) DAE young scientist award (2009/20/37/4/BRNS) and a startup grant 09IRCC007 from the IIT Bombay. The active support from Advanced Center for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH), and Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital Mumbai, India in clinical sample collection process is gratefully acknowledged.
- Ray S, Reddy PJ, Jain R, Gollapalli K. Moiyadi A, Srivastava S. Proteomic technologies for the identification of disease biomarkers in serum: advances and challenges ahead. Proteomics 11: 2139-61, 2011.
- Gollapalli K, Ray S, Srivastava R, Renu D, Singh P, Dhali S, Dikshit JB, Srikanth R, Moiyadi A, Srivastava S. Investigation of serum proteome alterations in human glioblastoma multiforme. Proteomics 12(14): 2378-90, 2012.
- Ray S, Renu D, Srivastava R, Gollapalli K, Taur S, Jhaveri T, Dhali S, Chennareddy S, Potla A, Dikshit JB, Srikanth R, Gogtay N, Thatte U, Patankar S, Srivastava S. Proteomic investigation of falciparum and vivax malaria for identification of surrogate protein markers. PLoS One 7(8): e41751, 2012a.
- Ray S, Kamath KS, Srivastava R, Raghu D, Gollapalli K, Jain R, Gupta SV, Ray S, Taur S, Dhali S, Gogtay N, Thatte U, Srikanth R, Patankar S, Srivastava S. Serum proteome analysis of vivax malaria: An insight into the disease pathogenesis and host immune response. J Proteomics 75(10): 3063-80, 2012b.
- Srivastava R, Ray S, Vaibhav V, Gollapalli K, Jhaveri T, Taur S, Dhali S, Gogtay N, Thatte U, Srikanth R, Srivastava S. Serum profiling of leptospirosis patients to investigate proteomic alterations. J Proteomics 76: 56-68, 2012.
- Ray S, Srivastava R, Tripathi K, Vaibhav V, Srivastava S. Serum proteome changes in dengue virus-infected patients from a dengue-endemic area of India: towards new molecular targets? OMICS 16(10): 527-36, 2012c.
* Correspondence: Dr. Sanjeeva Srivastava, Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai 400 076, India: E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Phone: +91-22-2576-7779, Fax: +91-22-2572-3480
K. P. Mohanakumar, Ph.D.
Chief Scientist, Cell Biology & Physiology Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata
Neuroprotective and neurodestructive effects of Ayurvedic drug constituents: Parkinson’s disease
The present study reports the good and the bad entities in an Indian traditional medicine used for treating Parkinson’s disease (PD). A prospective clinical trial on the effectiveness of Ayurvedic medication in a population of PD patients revealed significant benefits, which has been attributed to L-DOPA present in the herbs . Later studies revealed better benefits with one of the herbs alone, compared to pure L-DOPA in a clinical trial conducted in UK , and in several studies conducted on animal models of PD in independent laboratories world over [3-5]. We have adapted strategies to segregate molecules from the herb, and then carefully removed L-DOPA contained therein, and tested each of these sub-fractions for anti-PD activity in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, rotenone and 6-hydroxydopamine -induced parkinsonian animal models, and transgenic mitochondrial cybrids. We report here two classes of molecules contained in the herb, one of which possessed severe pro-parkinsonian (phenolic amine derivatives) and the other having excellent anti-parkinsonian potential (substituted tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives). The former has been shown to cause severe dopamine depletion in the striatum of rodents, when administered acutely or chronically. It also caused significant behavioral aberrations, leading to anxiety and depression . The latter class of molecules administered in PD animal model , caused reversal of behavioral dysfunctions and significant attenuation of striatal dopamine loss. These effects were comparable or better than the effects of the anti-PD drugs, selegiline or L-DOPA. The mechanism of action of the molecule has been found to be novel, at the postsynaptic receptor signaling level, as well as cellular α-synuclein oligomerization and specifically at mitochondria. The molecule helped in maintaining mitochondrial ETC complex activity and stabilized cellular respiration, and mitochondrial fusion-fission machinery with specific effect on the dynamin related protein 1. Although there existed significant medical benefits that could be derived to patients due to the synergistic actions of several molecules present in a traditional preparation, accumulated data in our hands suggest complicated mechanisms of actions of Ayurvedic medication. Our results also provide great hope for extracting, synthesizing and optimizing the activity of anti-parkinsonian molecules present in traditional Ayurvedic herbs, and for designing novel drugs with novel mechanisms of action.
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Nader Pourmand, Ph.D.
Director, UCSC Genome Technology Center,University of California, Santa Cruz
Biosensor and Single Cell Manipulation using Nanopipettes
Approaching sub-cellular biological problems from an engineering perspective begs for the incorporation of electronic readouts. With their high sensitivity and low invasiveness, nanotechnology-based tools hold great promise for biochemical sensing and single-cell manipulation. During my talk I will discuss the incorporation of electrical measurements into nanopipette technology and present results showing the rapid and reversible response of these subcellular sensors to different analytes such as antigens, ions and carbohydrates. In addition, I will present the development of a single-cell manipulation platform that uses a nanopipette in a scanning ion-conductive microscopy technique. We use this newly developed technology to position the nanopipette with nanoscale precision, and to inject and/or aspirate a minute amount of material to and from individual cells or organelle without comprising cell viability. Furthermore, if time permits, I will show our strategy for a new, single-cell DNA/ RNA sequencing technology that will potentially use nanopipette technology to analyze the minute amount of aspirated cellular material.
Tejaswini Subbannayya, Nandini A. Sahasrabuddhe, Arivusudar Marimuthu, Santosh Renuse, Gajanan Sathe, Srinivas M. Srikanth, Mustafa A. Barbhuiya, Bipin Nair, Juan Carlos Roa, Rafael Guerrero-Preston, H. C. Harsha, David Sidransky, Akhilesh Pandey, T. S. Keshava Prasad and Aditi Chatterjee
Proteomic profiling of gallbladder cancer secretome – a source for circulatory biomarker discovery
Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is the fifth most common cancer of the gastrointestinal tract and one of the common malignancies that occur in the biliary tract (Misra et al. 2006; Lazcano-Ponce et al. 2001). It has a poor prognosis with survival of less than 5 years in 90% of the cases (Misra et al. 2003). The etiology is ill-defined. Several risk factors have been reported including cholelithiasis, obesity, female gender and exposure to carcinogens (Eslick 2010; Kumar et al. 2006). Poor prognosis in GBC is mainly due to late presentation of the disease and lack of reliable biomarkers for early diagnosis. This emphasizes the need to identify and characterize cancer biomarkers to aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of GBC. Secreted proteins are an important class of molecules which can be detected in body fluids and has been targeted for biomarker discovery. There are challenges faced in the proteomic interrogation of body fluids especially plasma such as low abundance of tumor secreted proteins, high complexity and high abundance of other proteins that are not released by the tumor cells (Tonack et al. 2009). Profiling of conditioned media from the cancer cell lines can be used as an alternate means to identify secreted proteins from tumor cells (Kashyap et al. 2010; Marimuthu et al. 2012). We analyzed the invasive property of 7 GBC cell lines (SNU-308, G-415, GB-d1, TGBC2TKB, TGBC24TKB, OCUG-1 and NOZ). Four cell lines were selected for analysis of the cancer secretome based on the invasive property of the cells. We employed isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling technology coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry to identify and characterize secretome from the panel of 4GBC cancer cells mentioned above. In total, we have identified around 2,000 proteins of which 175 were secreted at differential abundance across all the four cell lines. This secretome analysis will act as a reservoir of candidate biomarkers. Currently, we are investigating and validating these candidate markers from GBC cell secretome. Through this study, we have shown mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomic analysis as a robust approach to investigate secreted proteins in cancer cells.