Lalitha Subramanian, Ph.D.
Chief Scientific Officer & VP, Services at Scienomics, USA
Nanoscale Simulations – Tackling Form and Formulation Challenges in Drug Development and Drug Delivery
Lalitha Subramanian, Dora Spyriouni, Andreas Bick, Sabine Schweizer, and Xenophon Krokidis Scienomics
The discovery of a compound which is potent in activity against a target is a major milestone in Pharmaceutical and Biotech industry. However, a potent compound is only effective as a therapeutic agent when it can be administered such that the optimal quantity is transported to the site of action at an optimal rate. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) has to be tested for its physicochemical properties before the appropriate dosage form and formulation can be designed. Some of the commonly evaluated parameters are crystal forms and polymorphs, solubility, dissolution behavior, stability, partition coefficient, water sorption behavior, surface properties, particle size and shape, etc. Pharmaceutical development teams face the challenge of quickly and efficiently determining a number of properties with small quantities of the expensive candidate compounds. Recently the trend has been to screen these properties as early as possible and often the candidate compounds are not available in sufficient quantities. Increasingly, these teams are leveraging nanoscale simulations similar to those employed by drug discovery teams for several decades. Nanoscale simulations are used to predict the behavior using very little experimental data and only if this is promising further experiments are done. Another aspect where nanoscale simulations are being used in drug development and drug delivery is to get insights into the behavior of the system so that process failures can be remediated and formulation performance can be improved. Thus, the predictive screening and the in-depth understanding leads to experimental efficiency resulting in far-reaching business impacts.
With specific examples, this talk will focus on the different types of nanoscale simulations used to predict properties of the API in excipients and also provide insight into system behavior as a function of shelf life, temperature, mechanical stress, etc.
Nitish Sathyanrayanan, Sandesh Ganji and Holenarsipur Gundurao Nagendra.
Insilico Analysis of hypothetical proteins from Leishmania donovani: A Case study of a membrane protein of the MFS class reveals their plausible roles in drug resistance
Kala-azar or visceral leishmaniais (VL), caused by protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani, is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Bihar, India (Guerin et al. 2002; Mubayi et al. 2010). The disease is transmitted to the humans mainly by the vector, Phlebotmus argentipes, commonly known as Sand fly. The majority of VL (> 90%) occurs in only six countries: Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Sudan, Ethiopia and Brazil (Chappuis et al. 2007). In the Indian subcontinent, about 200 million people are estimated to be at risk of developing VL and this region harbors an estimated 67% of the global VL disease burden. The Bihar state only has captured almost 50% cases out of total cases in Indian sub-continent (Bhunia et al. 2013). â€˜Conserved hypotheticalâ€™ proteins pose a challenge not just to functional genomics, but also to biology in general (Galperin and Koonin 2004). Leishmania donovani (strain BPK282A1) genome consists of a staggering âˆ¼65% of hypothetical proteins. These uncharacterized proteins may enable better appreciation of signalling pathways, general metabolism, stress response and even drug resistance.