Deepthy Menon, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Centre for Nanosciences & Molecular Medicine, Health Sciences Campus, Amrita University, Kochi, India
Nanobioengineering of implant materials for improved cellular response and activity
Deepthy Menon, Divyarani V V, Chandini C Mohan, Manitha B Nair, Krishnaprasad C & Shantikumar V Nair
Current trends in biomaterials research and development include the use of surfaces with topographical features at the nanoscale (dimensions < 100 nm), which influence biomolecular or cellular level reactions in vitro and in vivo. Progress in nanotechnology now makes it possible to precisely design and modulate the surface properties of materials used for various applications in medicine at the nanoscale. Nanoengineered surfaces, owing to their close resemblance with extracellular matrix, possess the unique capacity to directly affect protein adsorption that ultimately modulates the cellular adhesion and proliferation at the site of implantation. Taking advantage of this exceptional ability, we have nanoengineered metallic surfaces of Titanium (Ti) and its alloys (Nitinol -NiTi), as well as Stainless Steel (SS) by a simple hydrothermal method for generating non-periodic, homogeneous nanostructures. The bio- and hemocompatibility of these nanotextured metallic surfaces suggest their potential use for orthopedic, dental or vascular implants. The applicability of nanotextured Ti implants for orthopedic use was demonstrated in vivo in rat models, wherein early-stage bone formation at the tissue-implant interface without any fibrous tissue intervention was achieved. This nanoscale topography also was found to critically influence bacterial adhesion in vitro, with decreased adherence of staphylococcus aureus. The same surface nanotopography also was found to provide enhanced proliferation and functionality of vascular endothelial cells, suggesting its prospective use for developing an antithrombotic stent surface for coronary applications. Clinical SS & NiTi stents were also modified based on this strategy, which would offer a suitable solution to reduce the probability of late stent thrombosis associated with bare metallic stents. Thus, we demonstrate that nanotopography on implant surfaces has a critical influence on the fate of cells, which in turn dictates the long term success of the implant.
Acknowledgement: Authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from Department of Biotechnology, Government of India through the Bioengineering program.
Nader Pourmand, Ph.D.
Director, UCSC Genome Technology Center,University of California, Santa Cruz
Biosensor and Single Cell Manipulation using Nanopipettes
Approaching sub-cellular biological problems from an engineering perspective begs for the incorporation of electronic readouts. With their high sensitivity and low invasiveness, nanotechnology-based tools hold great promise for biochemical sensing and single-cell manipulation. During my talk I will discuss the incorporation of electrical measurements into nanopipette technology and present results showing the rapid and reversible response of these subcellular sensors to different analytes such as antigens, ions and carbohydrates. In addition, I will present the development of a single-cell manipulation platform that uses a nanopipette in a scanning ion-conductive microscopy technique. We use this newly developed technology to position the nanopipette with nanoscale precision, and to inject and/or aspirate a minute amount of material to and from individual cells or organelle without comprising cell viability. Furthermore, if time permits, I will show our strategy for a new, single-cell DNA/ RNA sequencing technology that will potentially use nanopipette technology to analyze the minute amount of aspirated cellular material.
Lalitha Subramanian, Ph.D.
Chief Scientific Officer & VP, Services at Scienomics, USA
Nanoscale Simulations – Tackling Form and Formulation Challenges in Drug Development and Drug Delivery
Lalitha Subramanian, Dora Spyriouni, Andreas Bick, Sabine Schweizer, and Xenophon Krokidis Scienomics
The discovery of a compound which is potent in activity against a target is a major milestone in Pharmaceutical and Biotech industry. However, a potent compound is only effective as a therapeutic agent when it can be administered such that the optimal quantity is transported to the site of action at an optimal rate. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) has to be tested for its physicochemical properties before the appropriate dosage form and formulation can be designed. Some of the commonly evaluated parameters are crystal forms and polymorphs, solubility, dissolution behavior, stability, partition coefficient, water sorption behavior, surface properties, particle size and shape, etc. Pharmaceutical development teams face the challenge of quickly and efficiently determining a number of properties with small quantities of the expensive candidate compounds. Recently the trend has been to screen these properties as early as possible and often the candidate compounds are not available in sufficient quantities. Increasingly, these teams are leveraging nanoscale simulations similar to those employed by drug discovery teams for several decades. Nanoscale simulations are used to predict the behavior using very little experimental data and only if this is promising further experiments are done. Another aspect where nanoscale simulations are being used in drug development and drug delivery is to get insights into the behavior of the system so that process failures can be remediated and formulation performance can be improved. Thus, the predictive screening and the in-depth understanding leads to experimental efficiency resulting in far-reaching business impacts.
With specific examples, this talk will focus on the different types of nanoscale simulations used to predict properties of the API in excipients and also provide insight into system behavior as a function of shelf life, temperature, mechanical stress, etc.