Shrikant Anant, Ph.D.
The Department of Molecular & Integrative Physiology, Kansas University Medical Center, USA
Cancer Stem Cells: Target Colon Cancers
Shrikant Anant, Deep Kwatra and Dharmalingam Subramaniam
Colon cancer is a leading cause of cancer related deaths in the US, and its rate is increasing at an alarming rate in lndia. Recent studies have suggested the drug resistance role for a mall number of cells within a tumor called cancer stem cells. We identified the colon cancer stem cell marker DCLK1, a member of the protein kinase superfamily and the doublecortin family. The protein encodes a Cterminal serinethreonine protein kinase domain, which shows substantial homology to Ca2calmodulindependent protein kinase. Our current studies have been to identify compounds that can either affect DCLK1 expression or inhibits its activity as a way to inhibit cancer stem cells. Honokiol is a biphenolic compound that has been used in the traditional Chinese Medicine for treating various ailments. In vitro kinase assays with recombinant DCLK1 demonstrated that honokiol inhibits its kinase activity in a dose dependent manner. We therefore determined the effect of honokiol on stem cells. One method to look at effects on stem cells is perform a spheroid assay, where spheroids formation is suggested to maintain stemlike characteristic of cancer cells. Honokiol significantly suppressed colonosphere formation of two colon cancer cell lines HCT116 and SW480. Flow cytometry studies confirmed that honokiol reduced the number of DCLK1cells. A critical signaling pathway known to modulate intestinal stem cell proliferation is the Hippo signaling pathway, and deregulation of the pathway leads to tumor development. DCLK1cells had high levels of YAP1, the nuclear target of Hippo signaling. We determined the effect of honokiol on components of the hipposignaling pathway. Honokiol reduced the phosphorylation of Mst1/2, Lats1/2 and YAP1. Furthermore, honokiol treatment resulted in downregulation of YAPTEAD complex protein TEAD-1. Ectopic expression of the TEAD-1 partially rescued the cells from honokiol mediated growth suppression. To determine the effect of honokiol on tumor growth in vivo, nude mice harboring HCT116 tumor xenografts in their flanks were administered the compound intraperitoneally every day for 21 days. Honokiol treatment significantly inhibited tumor xenograft growth. Western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses demonstrated significant inhibition in the expression of stem marker and Hippo signaling proteins in the honokioltreated xenograft tissues. Taken together, these data suggest that honokiol is a potent inhibitor of colon cancer that targets DCLK1 stem cells by inhibiting Hippo signaling pathway.
Bodo Eickhoff, Ph.D.
Senior Vice-President, Head of Sales and Marketing for Roche Applied Science, Germany
New paths for treatment of complex diseases: target combinatorial drug therapy
Several types of diseases show a complex pathogenesis and require targeted as well as combinatorial drug treatment. A classical example, Tuberculosis, was thought for decades to be managable by triple therapy, however now requiring new therapeutic approaches due to multi drug resistant strains. HIV and AIDS can only be kept under control by combinations of specific, virus-protein targeted drugs, requiring constant monitoring of resistance patterns and modulation of drug combinations during life-long therapy. As a third example, Cancer in all its different variations, requires detailled molecular understanding to enable targeted therapy. New technologies provide more and in depths molecular insights into pathomechanisms and resulting treatment options. However, is there an alternative way to approach complex diseases by holistic models? Can restoring of apoptosis-capabilities of transformed cells be an example of such an alternative path? How do we in future adress major unresolved topics like increasing drug resistance in bacterial infections, lack of anti-viral drugs, treatment of parasite diseases like Malaria, and newly emerging infectious diseases in research and fast translation of these results into diagnosis and treatment?